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J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 504–512.
for 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 PMCID: PMCID: for 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 PMC3249697PMC3249697
PMID: 22219583

Awanish Pandey

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Poonam Tripathi

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Rishabh Pandey

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Rashmi Srivatava

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Shambaditya Goswami

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Technology and Management, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Address for correspondence: Mrs. Poonam Tripathi, E-mail: [email protected]_ihtapirtmanoop
Received 2011 Feb 18; Revised 2011 Apr 26; Accepted 2011 Sep 14.
Copyright : © Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences
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Abstract

database marketing implementation robert shaw pdf 55228ed9e mellitus is primarily a problem with (🔴 glucose levels chart) | database marketing implementation robert shaw pdf 55228ed9e nailshow to database marketing implementation robert shaw pdf 55228ed9e for Diabetes the 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 mellitus is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system. This dreadful disease is found in all parts of the world and becoming a serious threat of mankind health. There are lots of chemical agents available to control and to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this date. In addition to adverse effects, drug treatments are not always satisfactory in maintaining euglycemia and avoiding late stage diabetic complications. Alternative to these synthetic agents, plants provided a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are widely used in several traditional systems of medicine to prevent diabetes. Several medicinal plants have been investigated for their beneficial effect in different type of diabetes. Other alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and yoga therapies less likely to have the side effects of conventional approaches for diabetes.Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system. This dreadful disease is found in all parts of the world and becoming a serious threat of mankind health. There are lots of chemical agents available to control and to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this date. In addition to adverse effects, drug treatments are not always satisfactory in maintaining euglycemia and avoiding late stage diabetic complications. Alternative to these synthetic agents, plants provided a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are widely used in several traditional systems of medicine to prevent diabetes. Several medicinal plants have been investigated for their beneficial effect in different type of diabetes. Other alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and yoga therapies less likely to have the side effects of conventional approaches for diabetes.

KEY WORDS: Alternative therapy, diabetes, hydrotherapy, hypoglycemic, yoga

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid, and protein metabolism along with specific long-term complication affecting the retina, kidney, and nervous system.[1] Diabetes mellitus has a significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy of patients as well as on the health care system.

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a growing worldwide epidemic by many health''s population, with the number of diabetics increasing by 4%-5% per annum.

Pathophysiology and Complication

Diabetes is known to have a strong genetic component with contributing environmental determinants. Although the disease is heterogynous, there appear to be a fairly consistent phenotype once the disease is fully manifested. Whatever the pathogenic cause the early stage of diabetes is characterized by resistance insulin, targeting tissue mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipocytes. Insulin resistance in the tissue is associated with excessive glucose production by the liver and impaired glucose utilization by peripheral tissue, especially muscle.[46]

Most of the food we eat is broken down into simply sugar called glucose. The glucose is the main source of fuel to get energy for the body. After digestion, the glucose reaches our blood stream, where it is available for body cells to utilize for energy, but insulin is needed for glucose to get into cells. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to transport glucose from blood into different cells of the body. If the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the produced insulin does not work properly, the glucose cannot enter the body cells. So glucose stay in blood cells which makes the blood sugar level high.[7,8]

Thus the body losses the main source of fuel for the energy even though the blood contain high amount of glucose. Since glucose is not metabolized, high amount of glucose circulate in blood, kidney remove extra sugar from blood and excrete it in the urine.[9] Since body does not utilize glucose, the body is under constant impression of hunger that''s, massage can stimulate better blood movement around the body. Improve circulation can do wonders for diabetic neuropathy and other diabetic-related complications. Even then it is suggested that it is necessary to consult closely with health care team before using massage therapy as a for 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 diabetic even for relaxation purpose.Thus the body losses the main source of fuel for the energy even though the blood contain high amount of glucose. Since glucose is not metabolized, high amount of glucose circulate in blood, kidney remove extra sugar from blood and excrete it in the urine.[9] Since body does not utilize glucose, the body is under constant impression of hunger that''s, massage can stimulate better blood movement around the body. Improve circulation can do wonders for diabetic neuropathy and other diabetic-related complications. Even then it is suggested that it is necessary to consult closely with health care team before using massage therapy as a diabetic even for relaxation purpose.

Acupuncture

Acupuncture therapy is a common approach to treating diabetes in China. Acupuncture is best known in the United States as an alternative therapy for chronic pain. However, it has been used for the treatment of diabetes and related complication during the past several decades. Acupuncture may be effective in treating not only diabetes, but also in preventing and managing complication of the disease.[51] A report in the 1994 Journal of traditional Chinese medicine serve as a model of effect of acupuncture on diabetic patients.[52]

The effect of acupuncture on diabetes have been observed experimentally and clinically.[5356] Animal experiments have shown that acupuncture can activate glucose-6-phosphate and affect hypothalamus.[51] Acupuncture can act on the pancreas to enhance insulin synthesis, increase the number of receptors on target cells, and accelerate the utilization of glucose, resulting in lowering of blood sugar.[51] Data from other studies have shown the beneficial antiobesity effect of acupuncture.[51,57,58] It appears that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on diabetes is not the result of its action on the single organ but on multiple system. Although acupuncture shown some effect in treating diabetes, its mechanism of action are still obscure.

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As per ancient literature, more than 800 plants are reported to have antidiabetic properties.[59] Ethanopharmacological surveys indicate that more than 1200 plants are used in traditional medicine for their allied hypoglycemic activity.[60] Indian Materia Medica has mentioned numerous dravyas have been reported effective in Madhumeha.[61]

The indigenous diet may not be useful in lowering the blood sugar to the same extent as insulin and other hypoglycemic agent do, but it has some other influences, which may be useful for the management of the disease and its complications.[62] In diabetes, some herbal alternatives are proven to provide symptomatic relief and assist in the prevention of the secondary complication of the disease. Some herbs have also been proven to help in regeneration of ß-cells and in overcoming resistance. In addition to maintaining normal blood sugar level, some herbs are also reported to possess antioxidant activity and cholesterol lowering action. The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is possible with drug that can lower the blood sugar level in one hand and restore the liver glycogen level on the other hand. In modern system of medicine, there is no drug, which is reported to possess both of the properties.[63] However, the hypoglycemic effect of some herbal extracts have been confirmed in human and animal models of type 2 diabetes and conventional drugs have been derived from the active molecule of these medicinal plants. Metformin, a less toxic biguanide and potent oral glucose lowering agents, was developed from Galega officinalis and used to treat diabetes.[6468]

To the date, over 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes have been reported,[65] although only a small number of these have received scientific and medicinal evaluation to assess their efficacy. The following is a summary of several of the most studied and commonly used medicinal herbs.

Momordica charantia

Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon, has been used extensively in folk medicine as a remedy for diabetes. The blood sugar lowering action of fresh juice or unripe fruit has been established in animal experimental models as well as human clinical trials.[6974]

It is composed of several compounds with confirmed antidiabetic activity. Alcohol-extracted charantin and M. charantia consist of mixed steroids was found to be more potent than the oral hypoglycemic agent tolbutamide in an animal study.[75]

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Commonly known as Fenugreek, popular for its pungent aromatic properties and is often used to add flavors in homes.

It has been used as a remedy for diabetes, particularly in India.[76] The active principle is in the defatted portion of the seed, which contains the alkaloid gonelline, nicotinic acid and coumarin. Several animal experimental studies confirmed the for 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 antidiabetic potential of T. foeneum graecum.[1518,77]It has been used as a remedy for diabetes, particularly in India.[76] The active principle is in the defatted portion of the seed, which contains the alkaloid gonelline, nicotinic acid and coumarin. Several animal experimental studies confirmed the antidiabetic potential of T. foeneum graecum.[1518,77]

Human studies have confirmed the glucose and lipid-lowering test.[78] At least 50% of seeds is fiber and may constitute another potential mechanism of Fenugreek''s response to treatment.

Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is the treatment of illness and injury through the use of water both hot and cold. Hydrotherapy helps the body to get rid of toxins and relax muscle. It also relaxes body both mentally and physically.

Since hot-tub therapy can increase both flow to skeletal muscle, it has been recommended for the patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to exercise.[147] A study reported that eight patients were asked to sit in a hot tub at an athletic facility with water up to their shoulders for 30 min for three weeks. During the study the patients weight, mean plasma glucose level and their mean Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased.[15] Caution should be taken that the water not to be too hot as neuropathy may prevent the patient from noticifying they are burning themselves. Hot-tub therapy should be further evaluated as a therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The benefit could result from increased blood flow to skeletal muscle.[148]

Proper water sanitation and appropriate guidance should be considered when prescribing hot-tub therapy for diabetic patients.[149]

Chromotherapy

Chromotherapy involves therapeutic use of colors. According to this system, the cause of any disease can be treated by the lack of color harmony in the human system and this imbalance can be removed by the use of colored light to the body.

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