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🔥+ importance customer relationship management business ebook pdf c0b2dcfab 06 Jun 2020 ... in families. However, neither type 1 diabetes (thin diabetes) nor type 2 diabetes (fat diabetes) is truly a genetic disease. ... Autosomal dominant inheritance.

importance customer relationship management business ebook pdf c0b2dcfab Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non–insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood.

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Abbreviations

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Clinical trials that are known by their acronym or abbreviation (e.g., ACCORD, DCCT) are listed on a separate page: Diabetes Trials

Do you have suggestions for other abbreviations to add to this list?
If so, please contact us at
[email protected].

A

A1C, A1c, GHB, GHb, hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c, HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c (a lab test for diabetes)
          (See The A1C Test and Diabetes)

AADE: American Association of Diabetes Educators (former name of the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists
          (Website: www.diabeteseducator.org)

ACE-I: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (a class of medications for treatment of hypertension)

ADA:
          American Diabetes Association (a not-for-profit diabetes organization)
          (Website: www.diabetes.org)
          American Dietitic Association (previous name for The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a not-for-profit nutrition organization)
          (Website: www.eatright.org)
          American for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 Dental Association (a not-for-profit dental organization)
          (Website: www.ada.org)
          Americans with Disabilities Act (a U.S. law)
          (Website: www.ada.gov) ADA:
          American Diabetes Association (a not-for-profit diabetes organization)
          (Website: www.diabetes.org)
          American Dietitic Association (previous name for The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a not-for-profit nutrition organization)
          (Website: www.eatright.org)
          American Dental Association (a not-for-profit dental organization)
          (Website: www.ada.org)
          Americans with Disabilities Act (a U.S. law)
          (Website: www.ada.gov)

ADCES: Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists
          (Website: www.diabeteseducator.org)

AGEs: Advanced glycosylation end products
          (See AGEs) AGEs: Advanced glycosylation end products
          (See AGEs)

AODM: Adult-onset diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 2 diabetes)

ARB: Angiotensin receptor blocker (a class of medications for treatment of hypertension)

ASCVD: Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

       

B

BG: Blood Glucose

BMI: Body Mass Index
          (See BMI)

BS: Blood Sugar

BUN: Blood urea nitrogen. A laboratory test used to assess kidney function.

       
B

BG: Blood Glucose

BMI: Body Mass Index
          (See BMI)

BS: Blood Sugar

BUN: Blood urea nitrogen. A laboratory test used to assess kidney function.

       

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C

c̄: with. This abbreviation is frequently used by medical professionals when hand-writing prescriptions, and in other situations where shorthand is used.

CDA: Canadian Diabetes Association (a not-for-profit diabetes organization)
          (Website: www.diabetes.ca)

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.cdc.gov/diabetes/)

CDE: Certified Diabetes Educator
          (Website: National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators)

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          (See Continuous Glucose Monitoring)

CGMS: Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
          (See Continuous Glucose for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 Monitoring) CGMS: Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
          (See Continuous Glucose Monitoring)

CHD: Coronary Heart Disease
          (See What Is Diabetic Heart Disease?)

CHF: Congestive Heart Failure
          (See What Is Diabetic Heart Disease?)

CSII: Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (delivery of insulin by insulin pump)

CV: Cardiovascular

CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (The medical term for stroke)
          (See What are the warning signs of a stroke?)

       

D

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DHD: Diabetic Heart Disease
          (See What Is Diabetic Heart Disease?)

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DPP-4 Inhibitor, DPP-IV Inhibitor, DPP4I: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (a class of diabetes medications)
          (See DPP-4 Inhibitors)

DKA: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (a complication of uncontrolled diabetes)

       

E

eAG: Estimated Average Glucose.
          (See estimated average glucose)

EASD: European Association for the Study of Diabetes (a multinational diabetes organization)
          (Website: www.easd.org)

ED: Erectile Dysfunction or Erectile Disorder
          (See What sexual problems can occur in men with diabetes?)

ER: Emergency Room

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F

FACE: Fellow of the American College of Endocrinology
          (Website: https://www.aace.com/college)

FACP: Fellow of the American College of Physicians
          (Website: http://www.acponline.org/membership/fellowship/)

FBG: Fasting for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 Blood Glucose FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose

FBS: Fasting Blood Sugar

FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.fda.gov)

FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose

       

G

GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase. Antibodies to GAD are sometimes found in people with type 1 diabetes.
          (See autoantibody)

GDM: Gestational diabetes mellitus
          (See What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes)

GFR: Glomerular filtration rate. A measurement of kidney function.

GHB, GHb, HbA1c, A1C, A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c: Glycated Hemoglobin, also known as Glycosylated Hemoglobin, also known as Hemoglobin A1c (a lab test for diabetes)
          (See The A1C Test and Diabetes)

GLP agonists: Glucagon-like peptide-1 Agonists
          (See Byetta, Victoza, and Bydureon (Incretin Mimetics/Glucagon-like peptide-1 Agonists))

GTT, OGTT: Glucose Tolerance Test, also known as Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (a lab test for diabetes)

       
G

GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase. Antibodies to GAD are sometimes found in people with type 1 diabetes.
          (See autoantibody)

GDM: Gestational diabetes mellitus
          (See What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes)

GFR: Glomerular filtration rate. A measurement of kidney function.

GHB, GHb, HbA1c, A1C, A1c, HbA1c, Hb1c: Glycated Hemoglobin, also known as Glycosylated Hemoglobin, also known as Hemoglobin A1c (a lab test for diabetes)
          (See The A1C Test and Diabetes)

GLP agonists: Glucagon-like peptide-1 Agonists
          (See Byetta, Victoza, and Bydureon (Incretin Mimetics/Glucagon-like peptide-1 Agonists))

GTT, OGTT: Glucose Tolerance Test, also known as Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (a lab test for diabetes)

       

H

HBGM, SMBG: Home Blood Glucose Monitoring, also known as Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose

HbA1c, Hb1c, GHB, GHb, HbA1c, A1C, A1c): Hemoglobin A1c (a lab test for diabetes)
          (See The A1C Test and Diabetes)

HBP: High blood pressure (hypertension)
          (See What is High Blood Pressure?)

HDL cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
          (See What You Need To Know About High Blood Cholesterol)

HHNC / HHNS: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma / hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome. A complication of diabetes in which there is extremely high blood glucose levels with minimal or no ketones.

HLA: Human leukocyte antigen.
          (See human leukocyte antigens)

       

I

IAA: Insulin autoantibodies
          (See autoantibody)

ICA: Islet cell autoantibodies
          (See autoantibody)

IDDM: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 1 diabetes)

IDF: International Diabetes Federation (a multinational diabetes organization)
          (Website: www.idf.org)

IFG: Impaired fasting glucose (a former term for pre-diabetes)
          (See How are diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosed?)

IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance (a former term for pre-diabetes)
          (See How are diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosed?)

IIT: Intensive Insulin Therapy.

       

J

JDM: Juvenile diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 1 diabetes)

JDF, JDRF: A not-for-profit diabetes organization, formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, and before that, as the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation
          (See JDRF Rebrand, November 2011, at www.jdrf.org)

       
J

JDM: Juvenile diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 1 diabetes)

JDF, JDRF: A not-for-profit diabetes organization, formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, and before that, as the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation
          (See JDRF Rebrand, November 2011, at www.jdrf.org)

       

K

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L

L: Lente (a formerly-used intermediate-acting variety of insulin)

LADA: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults.
          (See Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA))

LDL cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
          (See What You Need To Know About the 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 High Blood Cholesterol) LDL cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
          (See What You Need To Know About High Blood Cholesterol)

LGS: Low Glucose Suspend (a term used in conjunction with insulin pumps that can cease insulin delivery when glucose levels are low)
          (See LGS - a new diabetes concept as well as a new acronym)

       

M

MAA: Marketing Authorization Application (An application for European regulators to review a drug for approval for marketing in the EU. In the US, the equivalent document is called a New Drug Application (NDA).)

MDI: Multiple Daily Injections (of insulin)

MEN: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (a syndrome with multiple endocrine tumors)

mg/dL: Milligrams per deciliter (a unit of measurement used for blood glucose and for other lab tests)

mmol/L: Millimoles per liter (a unit of measurement used for blood glucose and for other lab tests)

MNT: Medical Nutrition Therapy

MODY: Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (a less common genetic form of diabetes)
          (See Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young)

       

N

NASH: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
          (See nonalcoholic steatohepatitis)

NCBDE: National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators
          (Website: www.nhlbi.nih.gov)

NHLBI: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.ncbde.org)

NDA: New Drug Application (An application for the US FDA to review a drug for approval for marketing in the USA. In Europe, the equivalent document is called a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA).)
          (For more information, see: New Drug Application)

NDEP: National Diabetes Education Program (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: ndep.nih.gov)

NDIC: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov)

NDM: Neonatal diabetes mellitus
          (See Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young)

NICE: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (A British health organization)
          (Website: www.nice.org.uk)

NIDDK: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.niddk.nih.gov)

NIH: National Institutes of Health (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.nih.gov)

NIDDM: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 2 diabetes)

NLD: Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum
          (See Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum)

NOD: Non-obese diabetic. (Non-obese diabetic mice exhibit a susceptibility to spontaneous development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus, and have been used as a model in type 1 diabetes research.)

NPH: Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (a variety of insulin)
          (See Types of Insulin)

       
N

NASH: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
          (See nonalcoholic steatohepatitis)

NCBDE: National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators
          (Website: www.nhlbi.nih.gov)

NHLBI: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.ncbde.org)

NDA: New Drug Application (An application for the US FDA to review a drug for approval for marketing in the USA. In Europe, the equivalent document is called a Marketing Authorization Application (MAA).)
          (For more information, see: New Drug Application)

NDEP: National Diabetes Education Program (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: ndep.nih.gov)

NDIC: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov)

NDM: Neonatal diabetes mellitus
          (See Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young)

NICE: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (A British health organization)
          (Website: www.nice.org.uk)

NIDDK: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.niddk.nih.gov)

NIH: National Institutes of Health (A U.S. Government Agency)
          (Website: www.nih.gov)

NIDDM: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (a former term for type 2 diabetes)

NLD: Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum
          (See Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum)

NOD: Non-obese diabetic. (Non-obese diabetic mice exhibit a susceptibility to spontaneous development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus, and have been used as a model in type 1 diabetes research.)

NPH: Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (a variety of insulin)
          (See Types of Insulin)

       

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O

OGTT, GTT: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, also known as Glucose Tolerance Test (a lab test for diabetes)

       

P

PCOS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
          (See Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)

PNDM: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
          (See Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young)

PubMed: PubMed (from the National Library of Medicine at the NIH)
          (Website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/)

PVD: Peripheral Vascular Disease

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PZI: Protamine Zinc Insulin (a formerly-used long-acting variety of insulin)

       

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Q

q: Every. This abbreviation is frequently used by medical professionals when hand-writing prescriptions, and in other for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 situations where shorthand is used.

       
Q

q: Every. This abbreviation is frequently used by medical professionals when hand-writing prescriptions, and in other situations where shorthand is used.

       

R

R: Regular (a variety of insulin)
          (See Types of Insulin)

Rx: Prescription

       
R

R: Regular (a variety of insulin)
          (See Types of Insulin)

Rx: Prescription

       

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S

s̄: without. This abbreviation is frequently used by medical professionals when hand-writing prescriptions, and in other situations where shorthand is used.

SGLT: Sodium-glucose transporter. The name of a "" in the kidneys that allows resorption of glucose. Two variants exist: sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2).
          (See SGLT2 inhibitors -- an upcoming class of medications for diabetes)

SMBG, HBGM: Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose, also known as Home Blood Glucose Monitoring

SU: Sulfonylurea (a class of diabetes medications)
          (See Sulfonylureas)

       

T

T1D, T1DM: Type 1 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 1 diabetes)

T2D, T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 2 diabetes)

T3D, T3DM: Type 3 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus)

TIA: Transient ischemic attack. A type of cerebrovascular accident or stroke.
          (See What are the warning signs of a stroke?)

TSA: Transportation Security Administration (a US Government for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 agency)
          (See Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions: Diabetes) TSA: Transportation Security Administration (a US Government agency)
          (See Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions: Diabetes)

TZD: Thiozolidinediones (a class of diabetes medications)
          (See Thiazolidinediones)

       
T

T1D, T1DM: Type 1 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 1 diabetes)

T2D, T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 2 diabetes)

T3D, T3DM: Type 3 diabetes mellitus
          (See Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus)

TIA: Transient ischemic attack. A type of cerebrovascular accident or stroke.
          (See What are the warning signs of a stroke?)

TSA: Transportation Security Administration (a US Government for 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 agency)
          (See Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions: Diabetes) TSA: Transportation Security Administration (a US Government agency)
          (See Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions: Diabetes)

TZD: Thiozolidinediones (a class of diabetes medications)
          (See Thiazolidinediones)

       

U

U: Units (a measurement of insulin activity)

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U, UL: Ultralente (a formerly-used long-acting variety of insulin)

URI: Upper Respiratory Infection

UTI: Urinary Tract Infection

       

V

VLDL cholesterol: Very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
          (See What You Need To Know About High Blood Cholesterol)

       

W

WHO: World Health the 1 last update 06 Jun 2020 Organization
          (Website: http://www.who.int/en/) WHO: World Health Organization
          (Website: http://www.who.int/en/)

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X

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Y

       

Z

       

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Author: William W Quick MD

    

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